This article argues that the interfraternity wars or “rumbles” that occur at the University of the Philippines Diliman must be understood as dynamic violent interactions between male-exclusive organizations equipped with the capability for group cohesion and defiance and is oriented to hegemonic masculinity. Analysis of 264 incidents reported from 1990 to 2013, indicates a shift in the pattern of rumbles: while there is an overall decrease of incidents, rumbles have concentrated in fewer fraternities over the years. The study further analyzes the narratives of 15 fraternity men (14 alumni and one student) about their own experiences of rumbles in the past, the emotions and sensations involved in being “at war” with rival fraternities, and their own criticisms about the culture of violence among fraternities. The study demonstrates how fraternities are at risk for hypermasculine behavioral paths that regard rumbles as a means to assert dominance over other fraternities and circumvent routes to hegemonic masculinity. The study also links micro-level factors of situational interactions and organizational features to larger cultural scripts regarding masculinity and future national leadership. Finally, the study provides insights in preventing fraternity-related violence in the campus and points to the challenges of gender socialization of UP students in relation to imaginaries of national service and future national leadership.
The article argues that understanding hegemonic masculinity can be amplified by looking into the situational contexts of men’s interactions in fraternity initiations based on the analysis of narratives of 15 fraternity men. Fraternity members from a Philippine university reached for hegemonic masculinity through the masculine exemplar of toughness to demonstrate preparedness for academic success, dominance in campus positions, and future national leadership. Through violentization (Athens, 2015), their initiations simulate the power clash between harsh patriarchs and supportive brothers that place young men’s bodies as objects and subjects of testing and indoctrination. Individual and collective efforts to critique and eschew the hypermasculinity of initiation violence achieved limited success although the pursuit of alternative socialization rituals remains a challenge.
The Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1835 – 1909) is the single-most important figure in the founding of criminology and the study of aberrant conduct in the human sciences.
The Cesare Lombroso Handbook brings together essays by leading Lombroso scholars and is divided into four main parts, each focusing on a major theme. Part one examines the range and scope of Lombroso’s thinking; the mimetic quality of Lombroso; his texts and their interpretation. The second part explores why his ideas, such as born criminology and atavistic criminals, had such broad appeal. Developing this, the third section considers the manners in which Lombroso’s ideas spread across borders; cultural, linguistic, political and disciplinary, by including essays on the science and literature of opera, ‘La donna delinquente’ and ‘Jewish criminality’. The final part investigates examples of where, and when, his influence extended and explores the reception of Lombroso in the UK, USA, France, China, Spain and the Philippines.
This text presents interdisciplinary work on Lombroso from academics engaged in social history, history of ideas, law and criminology, social studies of science, gender studies, cultural studies and Jewish studies. It will be of interest to scholars, students and the general reader alike.