Research

2017
<p>Homonegativity in Southeast Asia: Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam</p>
Manalastas, E. J., Ojanen, T. T., Torre, B. A., Ratanashevorn, R., Hong, B. C. C., Kumaresan, V., & Veeramuthu, V. (2017).

Homonegativity in Southeast Asia: Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam

. Asia-Pacific Social Sciences Review, 17(1), 25-33. WebsiteAbstract
How are sexual minorities like lesbians, gay men, and their sexualities viewed in the different societies of Southeast Asia? Previous studies have been limited by the reliance on data from university students and other non-representative samples, with little comparability across countries in the region. This research brief addresses this gap by comparing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and about lesbian and gay sexualities in six Southeast Asian countries using nationally representative survey data. Combined data from the World Values Survey (total n = 9,182 respondents from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) indicated that many Southeast Asians reject lesbians or gay men as neighbors, with the most homonegative attitudes to be found in Indonesia (66%) and Malaysia (59%), compared to relatively less rejecting nations like Thailand (40%), Singapore (32%), Vietnam (29%), and the Philippines (28%). Same-sex sexuality was least acceptable, based on a moral justifiability measure, among Indonesians, followed by Vietnamese and Malaysians. Singaporeans, Thais, and Filipinos were the least rejecting of lesbian and gay sexual orientations in the region. We also explored a number of established correlates of homonegative attitudes in each country, including gender, age, educational attainment, and religiosity.
manalastas_et_al_2017_homonegativity_se_asia.pdf
2016
<p>Suicide ideation and suicide attempt among young lesbian and bisexual Filipina women: Evidence for disparities in the Philippines</p>
Manalastas, E. J. (2016).

Suicide ideation and suicide attempt among young lesbian and bisexual Filipina women: Evidence for disparities in the Philippines

. Asian Women, 32(3), 101-120. WebsiteAbstract
Using archival data from a national survey of N=8,891 young Filipina women ages 15 to 24, this paper aimed to examine links between sexual-minority status and thinking about and attempting suicide. Similar to previous results from young Filipino men and to findings in the global LGBT mental health literature, sexual-minority status was associated with both suicide ideation and suicide attempt across measures of same-sex attraction and same-sex romantic relationships. Sexual-minority Filipina youth had higher odds of having thought about suicide and having attempted suicide, compared to heterosexual peers. Following a minority stress framework, this paper explored a number of correlates of suicide ideation and attempt, including normative risk factors such as depression, recent suicide attempt of a friend, and experiences of threat and victimization.
manalastas_2016_lb_suicide_risk_asian_women.pdf
<p>LGBT psychology in the Philippines</p>
Manalastas, E. J., & Torre, B. A. (2016).

LGBT psychology in the Philippines

. Psychology of Sexualities Review, 7(1), 60-72.Abstract
This paper presents an account of the initial developments towards an LGBT psychology in the Philippines. We situate this on critical events leading to: (1) an official policy by the Psychological Association of the Philippines (PAP) against anti-LGBT discrimination in 2011, the first in south-east Asia; and (2) the institutionalisation in 2014 of the PAP’s LGBT Psychology Special Interest Group. Organising efforts have focused in four areas: research, education, advocacy, and practice. National conferences have served as naturally occurring moments for mainstreaming and visibility within the profession. Research progress is evidenced by the publication in 2013 of a special LGBT issue of the Philippine Journal of Psychology. Education efforts have involved teaching an undergraduate elective on LGBT psychology, training of psychology teachers to integrate sexual and gender diversity, and conduct of ‘LGBT Psych 101’ seminars. Advocacy has focused on ‘giving away’ LGBT psychology through engagement with the activist community, media, and support for anti-discrimination legislation. Finally, initial work in professional practice has been around raising awareness of LGBT issues in counselling. We reflect on these initial successes and present lessons learned as well as next steps for the development of an LGBT-inclusive psychology in south-east Asia.
manalastas_torre_lgbt_psychology_in_the_philippines_posr_71.pdf
2015
<p>Cigarette smoking in Filipino sexual-minority men: Further evidence of disparities in the Philippines</p>
Manalastas, E. J., & Cabrera, N. L. (2015).

Cigarette smoking in Filipino sexual-minority men: Further evidence of disparities in the Philippines

. Silliman Journal, 56(1), 108-120.Abstract
Empirical studies in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health have documented significant disparities in risk behaviors and health outcomes across sexual orientation and gender identity. One such disparity lies in tobacco use. Surveys based on representative samples (Jabson, Farmer, & Bowen, 2014; Manalastas, 2012; Tang et al., 2004) as well as meta-analyses (Lee, Griffin & Melvin, 2009; Marshal et al., 2008) indicate that gender and sexual minorities generally have disproportionately higher rates of smoking than heterosexuals. This paper builds on previous research in the Philippines that presented initial evidence for cigarette smoking disparities among sexual-minority youth (Manalastas, 2012). We examine this issue again using a different nationally representative sample of Filipino men. Analysis of archival data from the National Demographic and Health survey Showed evidence for disparities in tobacco use based on sexual-minority status. Current smoking was disproportionately higher among sexual-minority men (67%) than heterosexual men (54%). Filipino sexual-minority men also began smoking significantly earlier—about a year—than heterosexual men. No differences in smoking volume was found—both sexual-minority and heterosexual Filipino male smokers smoked an average of 10-11 sticks a day. The findings point to one important disparity in Filipino LGBT health risks: the need to address the disproportionately higher uptake of tobacco use, one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, among sexual-minority Filipino men.
manalastas_cabrera_2015_sj_cigarette_smoking_men.pdf
<p>Assessing needs and capabilities: Towards an ICT resource to support HIV-positive gay men and other MSM in Southeast Asia</p>
Hanckel, B., Garcia, L., Santos, G. - M., & Manalastas, E. J. (2015).

Assessing needs and capabilities: Towards an ICT resource to support HIV-positive gay men and other MSM in Southeast Asia

. In Transforming HIV Prevention & Care for Marginalised Populations: Using Information and Communication Technologies in Community-Based and Led Approaches (pp. 231-245). Digital Culture & Education.Abstract
In this chapter, Benjamin Hanckel, Laurindo Garcia, Glenn-Milo Santos and Eric Julian Manalastas present work that confronts the sexual stigma, HIV-related stigma and isolation HIV-positive gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience when accessing information related to HIV. Their study presents the human face of HIV by exploring the technology use of HIV-positive MSM. Their research was part of a formative assessment undertaken at the initial stage of the development an information and communications technology (ICT) resource and peer- support web-app for HIV-positive MSM in Southeast Asia. Hanckel, et al.’s work tentatively illustrate how the capability deprivations experienced by HIV-positive men can be overcome by mobilising Amartya Sen’s capability approach to developing an ICT resource that addresses the deprivations and information deficiencies of HIV- positive MSM by enhancing peer support and increasing access to HIV-related information and resources.
hanckel_et_al_2015_ebook_chapter.pdf
<p>Comparison of exercise versus sport participation motives among Filipino university students</p>
Cagas, J. Y., Manalastas, E. J., Torre, B., & Sanchez-Pituk, C. (2015).

Comparison of exercise versus sport participation motives among Filipino university students

. Asia Life Sciences, 24(2), 703-713.Abstract
Despite the many documented benefits of exercise and physical activity on physical and psychological health, only a small percentage of Filipinos engages in regular exercise according to national surveys. Regular participation in leisure-time physical activities, such as exercise and sport, is positively associated with reduced anxiety and depression, enhanced mood and improved psychological well-being. Earlier studies have demonstrated that different motives may operate behind participation in various types of physical activity such as exercise (physical activity that is volitional, purposive and requires simple motor skills) versus sport (physical activity that is usually competitive, has organized rules and requires complex motor skills). In order to extend existing literature on sport and exercise psychology in the Philippine setting, motives for exercise participation versus sport engagement of Filipino university students were examined. Specifically, three hypotheses were tested: (1) That health and fitness motives are more associated with exercise than sport; (2) That motives concerning weight management and appearance are related more to exercise than sport, and (3) Motives related to social engagement figure in participation in sport more than in exercise. One hundred ninety-four university students from Metro Manila, Philippines completed two versions of the Exercise Motivation Inventory 2 (EMI-2, Kilpatrick et al. 2005, Markland & Ingledew 1997) to differentiate motives for exercise versus for sport participation. All three hypotheses were supported. Furthermore, enjoyment appeared to be an important factor in sport engagement. Implications for program design and physical activity promotion among Filipinos are also discussed.
cagas_et_al._asia_life_sciences_242_703-713_2015.galley_proof_04_mar_2015.pdf
2014
<p>Resolution of the Psychological Association of the Philippines on Gender-Based Violence and Violence Against Women (VAW)</p>
PAP,. (2014).

Resolution of the Psychological Association of the Philippines on Gender-Based Violence and Violence Against Women (VAW)

. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 47(2), 153-156.Abstract
Recent events have brought public attention to the continuing problem of gender-based dehumanization and violence against women in Philippine society. These include the documented sale of a t-shirt framing rape as a “snuggle with a struggle” in a large department store chain, the staging of a fashion show by the major retail brand featuring a male actor pulling a female model on an animal leash, and most recently, the violent death of a transgender woman from Olongapo City. In this resolution, we articulate the position of our national professional organization of Filipino psychologists, psychometricians, psychological researchers, and allied mental health professionals on the pressing problem of gender-based violence and its associated harms to mental health and well-being, especially for women.
pap_2014_gbv_vaw_policy.pdf
<p>From deviant to bakla, strong to stronger: Mainstreaming sexual and gender minorities into disaster risk reduction in the Philippines</p>
McSherry, A., Manalastas, E. J., Gaillard, J. C., & Dalisay, S. N. M. (2014).

From deviant to bakla, strong to stronger: Mainstreaming sexual and gender minorities into disaster risk reduction in the Philippines

. Forum for Development Studies. WebsiteAbstract
Disaster risk reduction (DRR), and indeed development at large, has traditionally been reluctant to acknowledge and accept the issue of gendered and sexual diversity in its mainstream policy design and practice. Recent forays into mainstreaming gender and sexual minorities into DRR have, however, highlighted the crucial role that these minorities play in bigger development aspirations of participation and empowerment. This debate article explores the notion of ‘queering development’ in DRR, and by drawing upon a recent DRR project in a rural area of the Philippines that is at high risk of natural hazards, we suggest a new framework for conceptualizing and ‘doing’ DRR.
mcsherryal_fds_2014.pdf
<p>Assessing needs and capabilities: Towards an ICT resource to support HIV-positive gay men and other MSM in Southeast Asia</p>
Hanckel, B., Garcia, L., Santos, G. - M., & Manalastas, E. J. (2014).

Assessing needs and capabilities: Towards an ICT resource to support HIV-positive gay men and other MSM in Southeast Asia

. Digital Culture & Education, 6(3), 183-196. WebsiteAbstract
HIV-positive gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual stigma, HIV-related stigma and isolation that can function as barriers to accessing information related to HIV. Little is known about how these men utilize and use technology to overcome these barriers. This study sought to explore technology use and identify key technological concerns of this population through a survey among 119 HIV-positive MSM. This survey was part of a formative assessment undertaken at the initial stage of the development an information and communications technology (ICT) resource and peer-support web-app for HIV-positive MSM in Southeast Asia. In this assessment, we found that HIV-positive MSM lack access to HIV-related support and resources. In particular, we observed that younger MSM (<30) and those diagnosed with HIV within the last year were less likely to report having friends living with HIV compared to older MSM and those without a recent HIV-diagnosis, respectively. These men expressed a need for ICT services that afford opportunities for social connection and resource sharing as well as information related to legal and health care resources. These findings illustrate the capability deprivations experienced by HIV-positive men. Using Amartya Sen’s capability approach we argue that developing an ICT resource can begin to address the deprivations and information deficiencies of HIV-positive MSM by enhancing peer support and increasing access to HIV-related information and resources.
hanckel.et_.al_.pdf
<p>“Pampapayat, Para Lumakas, To Be Healthy”: Exploring Filipino Motives For Exercise</p>
Cagas, J., Torre, B., & Manalastas, E. J. (2014).

“Pampapayat, Para Lumakas, To Be Healthy”: Exploring Filipino Motives For Exercise

. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 145-161.Abstract
Although exercise motivation is a well-established research area in exercise and sport psychology in the West, relatively little work on this topic is available in the Philippines. This study explored motives for exercise among Filipinos using an open-ended methodology. Five hundred ninety-two Filipinos aged 15 to 69 were asked to free-list possible motives for exercise participation. Two thousand ninety-five responses (about four per participant) were coded by two independent judges via direct content analysis and using themes derived from the Exercise Motivation Inventory subscales (EMI-2; Markland & Ingledew, 1997). The most frequently identified motives for exercise were highly extrinsic – Filipinos exercise for weight management, positive health, and strength and endurance. Challenge, social recognition, and competition were the least frequently cited motives. Results also surfaced participation motives outside those in the EMI-2, such as exercising to satisfy a requirement, to improve posture, and due to directed social influence from peers and family.
cagas_torre_manalastas_2014_pjp_exercise_motives.pdf
2013
<p>Diminishes pleasure, inconvenient to use, and spoils the mood: When Filipino men report problems with condom use</p>
Manalastas, E. J., & McDonnell, E. M. (2013).

Diminishes pleasure, inconvenient to use, and spoils the mood: When Filipino men report problems with condom use

. Philippine Population Review, 12(1), 1-16.Abstract
How common are problems with condom use during sex? We examined Filipino men’s negative experiences with male condoms using data from a sample of 1,010 sexually active Filipino men ages 15 to 54 who participated in the 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey. Results indicated that majority (80%) of Filipino condom users reported no problems with condoms. Among those who did experience problems, the most frequently cited were: pleasure reduction, inconvenience of use, and spoiled mood. Having problems with condom use was associated with men’s increasing age and with subjective beliefs that condoms would diminish pleasure, but not with men’s socioeconomic status, educational attainment, knowledge of condoms’ disease-protective properties, or sexual- minority status. Subjective beliefs appear to be more important than sheer knowledge about the protection provided by condoms. These beliefs may serve to create negative expectations about condoms and later, to legitimize non-use.
ppr_2013_1_manalastas_and_mcdonnell.pdf
<p>Social psychological aspects of advocating sexual citizenship rights for LGBT Filipinos</p>
Manalastas, E. J., & Torre, B. A. (2013).

Social psychological aspects of advocating sexual citizenship rights for LGBT Filipinos

(pp. 49). Quezon City: Institute of Human Rights.Abstract
Key political events in late 2009 and early 2010 brought to national consciousness the marginalization and ongoing struggle for equality and rights of Filipinos who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. We argue that one pathway to achieve legal empowerment and equal human rights for LGBT Filipinos is collective action that leads to social change and the reduction of inequalities. Using analytic perspectives from critical citizenship studies, social psychology, and LGBT studies, we examined collective action in the form of advocating for LGBT human rights in the Philippines. Using a peer-nomination procedure with participating organizations in the 2009 LGBT Manila Pride March, we identified key actors in the pursuit of social justice and equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Filipinos. In-depth qualitative interviews with nine LGBT human rights defenders delved into their pathways to participation in advocacy work, subjective experiences in and motivations for LGBT activism, and reflections on the meanings of LGBT activism in the Philippines. Our findings highlight key themes in the personal narratives of Filipino LGBT human rights defenders, including actions for LGBT human rights activism, the perceived benefits and costs of being an LGBT activist in the Philippines, the centrality of self-identification as an “activist”, evolving motivations and commitment for engaging in LGBT human rights work, and constructions of future selves in and out of activism. These narratives were lived out in the context of dominant human rights claims pursued by the Filipino LGBT movement in relation to Philippine law and legal policy, particularly freedom from discrimination, political representation and participation in the legislative sphere, and marriage equality.
manalastas_torre_fil_lgbt_activism.pdf
Filipino LGBT psychology: Moving beyond “homosexual” street corners to advancing contemporary visions
Manalastas, E. J. (2013). Filipino LGBT psychology: Moving beyond “homosexual” street corners to advancing contemporary visions. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 46(2), 1-3.Abstract
The earliest published references to same-sex sexualities in Philippine psychology are two descriptive field studies from more than three decades ago. One was an unobtrusive study of attitudes toward being gay using graffiti in public toilets (Sechrest & Flores, 1969). The other was an ethnographic inquiry into “male homosexual” sex work (Nery, 1979). Both papers were highly exploratory, took place in the street corners of the city of Manila, and as one author wrote, were “necessarily incomplete” (Nery, 1979, p. 32). The time has come for Filipino LGBT psychology research to move from these dark confined margins to the bright center, with rigor and rainbows in tow.
manalastas_2013_pjp_editors_note.pdf
<p>Philippine Journal of Psychology:&nbsp;Special Issue on LGBT Psychology</p>

Philippine Journal of Psychology: Special Issue on LGBT Psychology

. (2013).

Philippine Journal of Psychology: Special Issue on LGBT Psychology

. (E. J. Manalastas, Ed.).Abstract
Guest Editor's Note: Filipino LGBT Psychology: Moving Beyond "Homosexual" Street Corners to Advancing Contemporary Visions Eric Julian Manalastas. Towards an LGBT-Inclusive Psychology: Reflecting on a Social Change Agenda for Philippine Psychology Mira Alexis P. Ofreneo. Exploring the Social Cognitive Dimensions of Sexual Prejudice in Filipinos Allan B. I. Bernardo. Further Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale in the Philippines Raymond Aquino Macapagal. Ang Rosas ng Rehab: A Filipino Gay Child in Conflict With the Law Housed in a Youth Center Salvacion L. Villafuerte. Developing and Managing One's Sexual Identity: Coming Out Stories of Waray Gay Adolescents Pierce S. Docena. Exploring Sexual Minority Men and Their Sexual Roles: Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviors through Subjective Norms and Attitudes Moniq M. Muyargas. Comparing Relationship Satisfaction and Conflict Resolution Tactics of Filipino Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Individuals in Romantic Relationships Niel Steve M. Kintanar. Babaeng Bakla: Friendships between Women and Gay Men in the Philippines Beatriz A. Torre & Eric Julian Manalastas. The Role of Broadcast Media in Attitude Change: A Pilot Study on a Campus-Based Radio Program and its LGBT Advocacy Jose Antonio R. Clemente, Cherrie Joy F. Billedo & Clarissa C. David.
Babaeng Bakla: Friendships between women and gay men in the Philippines
Torre, B. A., & Manalastas, E. J. (2013). Babaeng Bakla: Friendships between women and gay men in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 46(2), 149-163.Abstract
In Philippine culture, babaeng bakla refers to women who associate with and develop close friendships with gay men and participate in gay cultural activities. This paper discusses a research investigation that examines the “babaeng bakla” phenomenon in the Philippines from the perspective of personality trait psychology. Using both imported and indigenous personality measures, we tested the hypothesis that women who are “babaeng bakla” might differ from other women along certain trait dimensions. Based on our findings, we developed a tentative model which suggests that Filipino women with certain personality characteristics form a reciprocal attraction with gay men. This leads them to develop close friendships with gay men and in turn fashion a “babaeng bakla” identity within Filipino gay culture.
torre_manalastas_2013_pjp_babaeng_bakla.pdf
<p>Sexual orientation and suicide risk in the Philippines: Evidence from a nationally representative sample of young Filipino men</p>
Manalastas, E. J. (2013).

Sexual orientation and suicide risk in the Philippines: Evidence from a nationally representative sample of young Filipino men

. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 46(1), 1-13.Abstract
This paper explores links between young men’s sexual orientation and suicide risk in the Philippines, to replicate findings in the global lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) psychology literature. I analyzed data from the men’s subsample of the Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey 3, a national population-based study of 8,042 Filipino men ages 15 to 24. Significant disparities in suicide risk along sexual orientation were found among male youth, with Filipino gay and bisexual men reporting higher levels of suicide ideation, but not suicide attempt. The odds for suicide ideation was more than two times greater among young same-sex attracted Filipino men compared to heterosexuals (OR = 2.09; 95% CI 1.50-2.93). These effects were partly accounted for by depression, recent suicide attempt of a friend, and experiences of threat and victimization. Similar to findings in the global LGBT psychology literature, this analysis – the first to do so in the Philippine context – indicates that sexual orientation appears to be significantly associated with suicide risk, with young Filipino gay and bisexual Filipino men at disproportionately higher risk for suicide ideation than heterosexual peers.
manalastas_2013_fil_gay_suicide_risk.pdf
2012
<p>Cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual Filipino youth: Findings from a national sample</p>
Manalastas, E. J. (2012).

Cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual Filipino youth: Findings from a national sample

. Silliman Journal, 53(1), 71-87.Abstract
Global research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health has shown that sexual and gender minorities have significantly higher rates of smoking than heterosexuals, using population-based surveys (Tang et al., 2004; Gruskin & Gordon, 2006; Gruskin et al., 2007) and meta-analysis (Ryan et al., 2001; Marshal et al., 2008; Lee, Griffith, & Melvin, 2009). This paper is the first to explore the prevalence of tobacco use among Filipino lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth using nationally representative data. Findings from the Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey (YAFS3) show that young lesbian and bisexual Filipina women had higher rates of ever-trying tobacco, had higher prevalence of current smoking, and smoked more cigarette sticks per day, compared to heterosexual women. While sexual orientation did not appear to be associated with smoking among men across three measures of tobacco use, Filipino gay and bisexual youth had the highest cigarette smoking prevalence of all four subgroups. The value of a gender x sexual orientation intersectional analysis of health risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, as well as possible implications for tobacco use intervention, is discussed.
manalastas_2012_sj_lgb_smoking.pdf
2011
<p>Statement of the Psychological Association of the Philippines on non-discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression</p>
PAP,. (2011).

Statement of the Psychological Association of the Philippines on non-discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression

. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 44(2), 229-230. pap_2011_lgbt_nondiscrimination_statement.pdf
Mga kwent-o ng sarap: Exploring orgasm as sexual pleasure in an undergraduate human sexuality course
Manalastas, E. J. (2011). Mga kwent-o ng sarap: Exploring orgasm as sexual pleasure in an undergraduate human sexuality course. In J. A. Cantiller & Yacat, J. A. (Eds.), Isip: Mga kaisipan sa sikolohiya, kultura at lipunang Pilipino (Vol. 1, pp. 89-122). Quezon City: Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino.Abstract
One of the most concrete instances of pleasure is orgasm – the intense subjective experience of sexual pleasure brought about by masturbation, sexual intercourse, and other forms of erotic behavior. To explore this, 47 Filipino students in an undergraduate human sexuality course conducted orgasm interviews – face to face conversations with 87 women and 101 men about their first and most recent experiences of orgasm. Thischapter discusses the process, outcomes, chal- lenges, and potentials of orgasm interviews as a learning tool for exploring and analyzing Filipino sexual pleasure that can be used in courses in gender, sexuality, and psychology. The psychological and political value of creating open discursive spaces about sexuality and sexual pleasure is emphasized, particularly in the context of Filipino sexual culture.
manalastas_2011_isip_orgasm.pdf
An exercise to teach the psychological benefits of solitude: The date with the self
Manalastas, E. J. (2011). An exercise to teach the psychological benefits of solitude: The date with the self. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 44(1), 95-106.Abstract
Solitude – time spent by oneself – is a common human experience, though its possible benefits may not be appreciated by many. In a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental evaluation of an exercise designed to teach the psychological benefits of solitude, 54 undergraduate students went on a date with the self, i.e., planning and deliberately spending an afternoon or evening by oneself engaged in personally chosen leisure activity. Results showed that the date with the self produced significant gains in appreciation of time spent alone, relative to a comparison group of 49 students. Of the features of solitude, anonymity and low levels of negative affect during the exercise accounted for increased appreciation for time spent alone, while feelings of inner peace, low levels of loneliness, and previous attitudes toward solitude were related to overall enjoyment of the activity.
manalastas_2011_pjp_solitude.pdf

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